2. (modifier) native, indigenous, fresh (of water), belonging to Aotearoa/New Zealand, freely, without restraint, without ceremony, clear, intelligible.
Kakū ana tana ngao i ngā kai papai a te Pākehā, engari ko tēhea atu hoki i te kānga kōpiro, i te toroī, i te kōura mara, i te kina i rāua ki te wai māori mō ngā rā e toru, i te kōuka, i te mangō me te kererū huahua, he mea kōtutu katoa i roto anō i ōna hinu (TTR 1998:206). / He enjoyed the finest of Pākehā foods but relished fermented corn, pickled pūhā and mussels, crayfish fermented in fresh water, sea-urchins steeped in fresh water for three days, inner baby fronds of the cabbage tree, shark, and wild pigeons preserved entirely in their own fat.
3. (modifier) freely, without restraint, without ceremony, without object, unannounced.
Mō te tūpono peka māori mai koutou kia kite i tēnei whakahaere e kī nei mātou e mate ana i te tuakoka, i te pōhara, he whakatūpato noa atu tēnei kia kaua e whētuki i te āhua o tō mātou tari (HM 3/1994). / In case you make an unscheduled visit to see this operation, we are saying we are poverty-stricken, which is a caution to not be shocked at the nature of our office.
1. (verb) to be able, accomplished, possible - although this word derives from tae and its passive ending -a, it has developed a feature distinct from the normal passive construction, in that the action of which someone is said to be capable is preceded by te and no preposition. Unlike other verbs in the passive which do not take a passive ending when following me, taea may occur after me. If taea is modified by a base and/or a particle, which would normally take a passive ending after a verb in the passive, then that base or particle also has a passive ending (usually -tia).
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 75-76;)
Ka taea ēnei kōrero e ia te tuhi. / He is able to write down this account.
Kīhai i oti i a ia tana tohu paetahi; ahakoa i taea ngāwaritia noatia e ia te nuinga o ngā mahi (TTR 1996:66). / He did not complete his BA; although he was able to do most of his subjects quite easily.
1. (interjection) fortunately, happily, luckily - normally used at the start of the statement.
Ka roa ia e hoe ana, ka totohu tana waka, kātahi ia ka kau ki uta, tōna ūnga ki uta ka tata hoki ia te hemo, maringanui i tūpono he kāinga Pākehā i reira (TPH 30/7/1903:6). / After he had been rowing for a long time his vessel sank. Then he swam ashore and on reaching land he was almost dead, but luckily he came upon a Pākehā home there.
See also marenganui
1. (verb) (-tia) to become Pākehā - see 3 below.
2. (modifier) English, foreign, European, exotic - introduced from or originating in a foreign country.
3. (noun) New Zealander of European descent - probably originally applied to English-speaking Europeans living in Aotearoa/New Zealand. According to Mohi Tūrei, an acknowledged expert in Ngāti Porou tribal lore, the term is a shortened form of pakepakehā, which was a Māori rendition of a word or words remembered from a chant used in a very early visit by foreign sailors for raising their anchor (TP 1/1911:5). Others claim that pakepakehā was another name for tūrehu or patupairehe. Dispite the claims of some non-Māori speakers, the term does not normally have negative connotations.
(Te Kōhure Textbook (Ed. 2): 128-138;)
Te rongonga o te Māori i te reo kihi, hoihoi, o Kāpene Kuki rātou ko ōna hōia ka kīia e te Māori he Pakepakehā, ka whakapotoa nei ki te Pākehā. Nā te Māori tēnei ingoa i hua e mau nei anō (TP 1/1911:5). / When the Māori heard the soft and loud sounds of the language of Captain Cook and his sailors the Māori called them 'Pakepakehā', which was shortened to 'Pākehā'. The Māori created this name, which is still used.
I tētahi whawhaitanga i muri mai, ka riro tētahi o ngā pū repo a te Pākehā i te Māori, nō muri mai ka tuomakia mai e tētahi Pākehā nō Amerika, he kaupoai (TP 7/1900:8). / In a later fight, one of the cannons of the Pākehā was taken by the Māori, and later on, a Pākehā from America, a cowboy, came hurrying up.
4. (noun) foreigner, alien.
Otirā ko ā te Pākehā rākau anake e ngahoro ana ngā rau, heoi anō tā te Māori rākau i rite ki ā te Pākehā ko te kōtukutuku, arā ko te kōnini (TP 9/1903:1). / But only exotic trees are deciduous, however the native tree that is like exotic trees is the kōtukutuku (tree fuchsia), also called the kōnini.
1. (noun) likeness, custom, customary practice, habit, practice, resemblance, implication - the normal way of doing things.
Otirā ehara i te mea ko te pītiti anake, engari ko ngā āhua rākau katoa pēnā tonu tō rātou ritenga tae iho ana ki ngā huarākau ririki, arā, ki te karani pango, mā, whero, me te rāhipere, me te kūpere me ētahi atu o ngā huarākau ririki katoa (TP 12/1905:7). / But it's not as if it is only peaches, but all sorts of trees that are treated in that way, including small fruits, that is, black, red and white currants, raspberries, gooseberries and all the other small fruits.
4. (noun) version.
1. (noun) hue, dye, colour, stain, pigment - not normally used before the names of colours.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 86; Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 162-165; Te Māhuri Study Guide (Ed. 1): 63-64;)
Ko te tae o ngā hune, e rite ana ki te pūkohu, ā, he kōrangorango te āhua (HM 4/1998:4). / The colour of the down feathers is similar to moss and is mottled.
Ina ranua te kōwhai me te whero, ko te karaka ka hua mai (HJ 2012:98). / When yellow and red are mixed together, orange results.
1. (loan) (noun) typhoid fever, typhus - an example of two words that commonly go together being treated as though they were one word when borrowed into Māori. With normal word order in Māori, one would expect the loan to be pīwa taipō, which is also common in the literature for the first half of the 20th century, but taipō pīwa, or mate taipō, is much more common in modern Māori.
3. (noun) children - normally used only in the plural.
1. (particle) to cause something to happen, cause to be - prefixed to adjectives, statives and verbs that do not take a direct object, including reduplicated forms.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 111-112;)
5. (particle) towards, in the direction of - when prefixed to location words, especially mauī, matau, katau, mua, muri, raro, roto, runga and waho, and to nouns, in which case they will be preceded by te. With mauī, matau and katau, te may precede the location word or it may be omitted. With these they are sometimes written as three words separated by hyphens, e.g. whaka-te-moana. These words are normally used only as second, qualifying bases in a phrase.
(Te Kākano Audio Tapes/CDs (Ed. 2): 112;)
I Waihī ka huri whakauta te ope taua ka whai i te whārua o Pongakawa (TTR 1900:171). / From Waihī the war party turned inland and proceeded along the Pongakawa river valley.
Huri whakatemauī! / Turn left, please!
I te atapō tonu ka maunu te pā nei, ka haere, ka ahu whaka-Waikato (JPS 1899:180). / Just before dawn they retreated from this pā, departed and headed towards Waikato.
Ka titiro whakatemoana te iwi rā; hoki rawa mai te titiro kua ngaro te wahine nei (M 2004:160). / The people all looked towards the sea, and when their gaze returned this woman had disappeared.
Ka patua ko Tākaha i Ōtāwhao i te taha whakauta o Waipāwa (TTR 1990:347). / Tākaha was killed at Ōtāwhao on the inland side of Waipāwa.
See also whakawaho, whakatekaraka, whakamauī, whakamatau, whakamua, whakamuri, whakararo, whakaroto, whakarunga, whakatehauāuru, whakatekatau, whakatemarangai, whakatemauī, whakatemoana, whakateraki, whaka-tētehi-taha, whakatetonga, whakateuma, whakateuru, whakatonga, whakauta, whakaterāwhiti
7. (particle) a particular use of the prefix whaka- with numerals is for fractions, but this use is uncommon in modern Māori. Used this way as a noun or to follow a noun as a modifier (i.e. as an adjective).
Āta wehea te whakatekau o ēnei moni mō ngā mahi a Ihowā, tō tātou Atua, arā, mō Tōna Hāhi, mō te kawe i te Rongo Pai ki ngā Tauiwi, mō te whāngai rawakore, pouaru, tūroro, me ērā atu tini mahi pai, mahi aroha (TP 1/9/1901:5). / Carefully divide off a tenth of this money for the work of Jehovah, our God, that is, for His Church, for conveying the Gospel to the heathens, for feeding the poor, widows, invalids, and for those many good works and deeds of charity.
See also whakatekau
1. (noun) fat hen, Chenopodium album - a very common weed, especially in arable districts. Growing mainly in spring and summer, this erect weed can grow up to 2m tall. It is known as a very competitive weed due to its ability to remove moisture from the soil even in dry conditions. The grey-green leaves are up to 7cm long, sword shaped and have margins that appear toothed. Main stems and laterals often have green, yellowish or sometimes reddish ribs and can become quite hardy. Normally forms very small green flowers between December and May that develop into a tight cluster of seeds up to 30cm long. Seeds remain viable in the soil for long periods of time.
1. (noun) caller - the woman (or women) who has the role of making the ceremonial call to visitors onto a marae, or equivalent venue, at the start of a pōwhiri. The term is also used for the caller(s) from the visiting group who responds to the tangata whenua ceremonial call. Traditionally this role was based on one's status within the hapū or whānau, the eldest sister normally being given the role. Skilled kaikaranga are able to use eloquent language and metaphor and to encapsulate important information about the group and the purpose of the visit.
Ki tā Iranui, i ngā wā o mua i haere ngā wāhine me te kaikaranga o te manuhiri ki waenganui o te ope whakaeke ki runga i te marae, ā, ko ngā tāne kei ngā taha ki te tiaki i ngā wāhine. / According to Iranui, in former times the women and the caller of the visitors went in the middle of the group going onto the marae and the men were at the sides to protect the women.
1. (verb) to become elderly, grow old - of a woman.
I a Te Puea ka ruahine haere, ka pupū ake te wehi o te rangatahi i a rātou e mātakitaki ana i a ia e whakahaere ana i ngā take a te marae (TTR 1996:52). / As Te Puea grew older the young ones were in awe of her while they were watching her directing the affairs of the marae.
3. (noun) woman of importance used in certain ceremonies for the removal of tapu, e.g. house openings - normally this would be the eldest female from a family of rank.
I te patunga i ngā tautīaki, me te paepae-tapu-nui-a-Tāne tae noa ki te pikitanga a te ruahine i te paepae-tapu-nui-a-Tāne; me te whakatuwheratanga o te tatau; me te pikitanga i te paepae poto a te ruahine: kāore i te eke ngā karakia e hāngai ai te piki i ngā paepae e rua me te whakatuwhera o te tatau (TTT 1/5/1930:2055). / From the striking of the upright posts beneath the front bargeboards of the meeting house and the sacred threshold of Tāne including the climbing over of the sacred threshold of Tāne by the ruahine; the opening of the door; the climbing over of the door sill by the ruahine; the ritual chants used were not appropriate for stepping over the two thresholds and the opening of the door.
1. (noun) floor space and corner on the left on entering a wharenui - normally the place where the local people of the marae sit or sleep.
1. (particle) Used before people's - names, wai, mea and personified objects when they stand as the subject of the sentence and when they follow i, ki, hei and kei.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 13, 57, 83, 102; Te Kākano Study Guide (Ed. 1): 25;)
4. (particle) Sometimes used as a literary device before words that would normally be used as nouns or verbs.
1. the only thing that we can do, the only outcome, the only thing I'll be doing - an idiom to indicate an activity is the normal outcome or result of some other activity or state.
2. (noun) floor space and corner on the left on entering a wharenui – normally the place where the local people of the marae sit or sleep.