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Found 20 matches

whakapapa Play

1. (verb) (-hia,-tia) to lie flat, lay flat.

E kore a Kiki e puta ki waho, engari ka tōia te papa o tōna whare kia tuwhera, ka mate tonu iho te manuhiri, whakapapa tonu te manuhiri i te mate (NM 1928:145). / Kiki would not come out, but when he pulled open the door of his house the visitors fell down dead, they lay out dead.


Found 20 matches

2. (verb) (-hia,-tia) to place in layers, lay one upon another, stack flat.

Ka whakapapatia ngā mapi ko ngā mea o Aotearoa ki runga. / The maps were placed one on top of the other with the ones of New Zealand on top.


Found 20 matches

3. (verb) (-hia,-tia) to recite in proper order (e.g. genealogies, legends, months), recite genealogies.

Ko te ingoa o te whare, o te marae rānei, o Ngāti Rangi, ko Tāne-nui-a-Rangi kua whakapapatia ake nei e au (HP 1991:6). / The name of the house, or marae, of Ngāti Rangi is Tāne-nui-a-Rangi which I have set out above.


Found 20 matches

4. (noun) genealogy, genealogical table, lineage, descent - reciting whakapapa was, and is, an important skill and reflected the importance of genealogies in Māori society in terms of leadership, land and fishing rights, kinship and status. It is central to all Māori institutions. There are different terms for the types of whakapapa and the different ways of reciting them including: tāhū (recite a direct line of ancestry through only the senior line); whakamoe (recite a genealogy including males and their spouses); taotahi (recite genealogy in a single line of descent); hikohiko (recite genealogy in a selective way by not following a single line of descent); ure tārewa (male line of descent through the first-born male in each generation).

He mea nui ki a tātau ō tātau whakapapa (HP 1991:1). / Our genealogies are important to us.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 3; Te Māhuri Study Guide (Ed. 1): 13-14; Te Kōhure Textbook (Ed. 2): 237-240;)

See also tararere, taotahi, whakamoe, tātai, kāwei, hikohiko, kōhikohiko, tāhū, ure tārewa


whakapāpā

1. (verb) (-tia) to be in contact, have skirmishes.

I mua i te hokinga ki te riu o Waiapu ka whakapāpā haere atu a Rāpata me ana toa ki Ūawa (TTR 1990:382). / Before returning to the Waiapu Valley, Rāpata and his men had skirmishes at Tolaga Bay.


2. (modifier) in contact.

I noho whakapāpā tonu ia ki tōna matua (TTR 1994:21). / He continued to keep in contact with his father.


3. (noun) contact, comunication.

I a ia i Hukarere i mau tonu tana whakapāpā atu ki tōna whānau (TTR 1998:59). / While she was at Hukarere her contact with her family was maintained.


4. (noun) skirmish, encounter, clash, engagement.

I uru mātau ki tētahi whakapāpā i mua i te kōkiri nui (Ng 1993:432). / We were involved in a skirmish before the main attack (Ng 1993:432).


whakapapa pounamu

1. (verb) to cause to be like a smooth slab of greenstone, calm, smooth.

Arā anō ngā kōrero mō tētahi taniwha ka whakapapa pounamu i ngā ngaru nui mō te waka o Tainui (Te Ara 2017). / There is another story of a taniwha that calmed the great waves for the canoe of the Tainui people.
Kia hora te marino, kia whakapapa pounamu te moana, kia tere te kārohirohi i mua i tō huarahi (NP 2001:210). / May the calm be widespread, may the sea lie smooth as a slab of greenstone, may the shimmer of light guide you on your way. (A blessing for travellers.)


Ngā Whakapapa Play

1. Chronicles - name of two of the books of the Old Testament.


kapeu whakapapa

1. (noun) notched rod used for reciting genealogies.


whakapiri Play

1. (verb) (-ngia,-a,-hia,-tia) to stick, fasten, remain close to, keep close, keep watertight, paste.

Ka ngangautia e ia kia ngāwari, kia pakupaku, ka āta whakapiritia ki te mamae, hāware katoa atu nō te mea he pai tonu hoki te hāware mō te whakaora (HP 1991:23). / She chewed it until it was soft and small and carefully applied it to the sore part. It had saliva throughout because saliva is quite good for healing.


2. (verb) to define one's relationship and position with someone using whakapapa.

Arā kē te mokopuna tika a Tamahau ko Maata nō te mea ko tā rāua mokopuna tērā ko Hikawera, arā kē te tamāhine tūturu a Tamahau ko Hōriana, ko au i whakapiri noa atu i tōku whakapapa ki te taha o Tamahau (TPH 31/12/1903:3). / The correct grandchild of Tamahau is Martha because Hikawera is their grandchild and the real daughter of Tamahau was Hōriana, I established my relationship in my whakapapa with Tamahau's side.


3. (modifier) closely associated.

I whakatūria anō e Rīpeka me ētahi atu wāhine rangatira, tētahi rōpū whakapiri, arā, ko Te Rōpū Māori Girls' Club (TTR 1996:76). / Rīpeka and some other leading women set up an association called Te Rōpū Māori Girls' Club.


4. (noun) close association.

Na, nō muri ka whakapaengia nā tōna whakapiri pea ki ngā Wēteriana i whai ai ia i te ngāwari (TTR 1990:66). / Later it was claimed that perhaps it was because of close association with the Wesleyans that he pursued an accommodation.


taotahi Play

1. (verb) to recite genealogy in a single line of descent.

Kāore au e pai ki te taotahi i aku whakapapa, me āta whakamoe anō ka pai ai au (W 1971:204). / I don't like to recite just single lines in my genealogy, I like to recite them with the marriages included.

See also whakapapa


2. (noun) single line of whakapapa.

Ko te whakapapa kōhikohiko, i roto i te whakapapa kōhikohiko kua kore e whai i te tātai taotahi, arā, whakaheke haere tonu mai i te taha kotahi anake, he taotahi tērā (Milroy 2015). / The genealogy recited in a selective way, the whakapapa kōhikohiko, does not follow a single line of descent, in other words tracing descent coming down one line only, which is taotahi.


whakarua

1. (modifier) whakapapa traced through two iwi lines.

Engari mēnā e hoki mai ana koe i te whakapapa taotahi, ā, e pai ana tērā hei hoatu ki ā tātau tamariki, ki ā tātau mokopuna. Engari atu i tērā, kaua e kōhikohiko te whakapapa, kaua e whaiwhai i te taha whakarua, engari me noho tonu ki te āhua o tāu e hiahia ana ki te whaiwhai atu (Milroy 2015). / But if you are returning to recite genealogy in a single line of descent, that's suitable to give to our children and grandchildren. But apart from that, don't recite genealogy in a selective way by not following a single line of descent, and don't follow lines of descent from two tribes, but stay to the aspect that you are wanting to follow.


2. (noun) hollow, depression, valley.


3. (noun) change.

Nā me hoatu e ahau ētahi kākahu rīnena ki a koutou, kia toru tekau, kia toru tekau anō ngā whakarua mō ngā kākahu (PT Kaiwhakariterite 14:12). / Then I will give you thirty sheets and thirty change of garments.


rāwaho Play

1. (modifier) from outside, outside.

Ko te hāhi rāwaho i tae mai ko te Hareruia (EM 2002:127). / The outside faith that arrived was the Alleluia Church.


2. (noun) outsider, foreigner - this is also a term used for people who are not related to the hapū or whānau members, including those who have married into the kinship group and do not have whakapapa links. Rāwaho were people who were excluded from decision-making processes by whānau or hapū because they had no whakapapa or land interests. Nowadays it would be difficult to be exclusive and to disenfranchise a blood relation of up to three degrees, living away from the tribal home, of entitlements to land and family decision-making processes. People in this situation would still be regarded as rāwaho, but would be able to become ahi kā and have decision-making power by returning to live in the tribal area and by participating in the hapū activities for a significant period.

Kāore hoki he rāwaho i whakaaetia kia uru mai ki tēnei huihuinga (TTT 1/12/1925:334). / And outsiders were not permitted to participate in that meeting.


ahi kā Play

1. (noun) burning fires of occupation, continuous occupation - title to land through occupation by a group, generally over a long period of time. The group is able, through the use of whakapapa, to trace back to primary ancestors who lived on the land. They held influence over the land through their military strength and defended successfully against challenges, thereby keeping their fires burning.

See also ahikāroa, ahikā, ahi-kā-roa


Karetai Play

1. (personal name) (?-1860) Ngāi Tahu; chief and leader based at Ōtākou on the Otago Peninsula. Distinguished in the three requisites for leadership, mana-whakapapa, war and political acumen. Was involved in successful campaigns against Ngāti Toa (Te Kōhure: 142-160).


Taupopoki, Mita Play

1. (personal name) (1845/46?-1935) Tūhourangi, Ngāti Wāhiao; leader whose rank, oratory and knowledge of whakapapa and tradition brought him fame.


ahikāroa Play

1. (noun) burning fires of occupation, long undisturbed occupation, continuous occupation - title to land through occupation by a group, generally over a long period of time. The group is able, through the use of whakapapa, to trace back to primary ancestors who lived on the land. They held influence over the land through their military strength and defended successfully against challenges, thereby keeping their fires burning.

Ko ētahi whenua e riro ana i runga i te ahikāroa, me to noho tūturu i runga i te whenua o ngā tīpuna, tae noa mai ki ōna uri, kāore te Kōti e āta rapa ana ki te tika rawa taua ahikaroa (TW 14/7/1877:296). / Some land being awarded according to ahikāroa and the permanent occupation of the land of the ancestors, right down to the descendants, the Court is not examining carefully enough as to whether that undisturbed occupation is actually correct.

See also ahikā


wairua Play

1. (noun) spirit, soul - spirit of a person which exists beyond death. It is the non-physical spirit, distinct from the body and the mauri. To some, the wairua resides in the heart or mind of someone while others believe it is part of the whole person and is not located at any particular part of the body. The wairua begins its existence when the eyes form in the foetus and is immortal. While alive a person's wairua can be affected by mākutu through karakia. Tohunga can damage wairua and also protect the wairua against harm. The wairua of a miscarriage or abortion can become a type of guardian for the family or may be used by tohunga for less beneficial purposes. Some believe that all animate and inanimate things have a whakapapa and a wairua. Some believe that atua Māori, or Io-matua-kore, can instill wairua into something. Tohunga, the agents of the atua, are able to activate or instil a wairua into something, such as a new wharenui, through karakia. During life, the wairua may leave the body for brief periods during dreams. The wairua has the power to warn the individual of impending danger through visions and dreams. On death the wairua becomes tapu. It is believed to remain with or near the body and speeches are addressed to the person and the wairua of that person encouraging it on its way to Te Pō. Eventually the wairua departs to join other wairua in Te Pō, the world of the departed spirits, or to Hawaiki, the ancestral homeland. The spirit travels to Te Reinga where it descends to Te Pō. Wairua of the dead that linger on earth are called kēhua. During kawe mate, or hari mate, hura kōhatu and other important occasions the wairua is summoned to return to the marae.

Haere rā i a koe ka kōpikopiko atu ki Te Hono-i-wairua, ki te kāpunipunitanga o te wairua (TTR 1998:37). / We farewell you as you wend your way to the Gathering Place of Spirits, the meeting place of departed souls.
Te tinana, te hinengaro, me te wairua ēnei e toru, te mea nui o ēnei ko te wairua. Te tinana: he anga kau nō te wairua. Te hinengaro: he kaiwhakaatu ki te ao he pēnei nā te wairua kei roto i te tangata (TTT 1/12/1930:2215). / Of these three things, the body, the mind and the spirit, the most important is the spirit. The body is the vehicle for the spirit. The mind shows the world what the spirit of the person is like.
(Te Kōhure Textbook (Ed. 2): 221-228;)


2. (noun) attitude, quintessence, feel, mood, feeling, nature, essence, atmosphere.

Ko te wairua o te kōrero, kia Māori mai (HM 2/1994:10). / The feel of the language should be Māori.


3. (noun) bonfire moss, common cord-moss, Funaria hygrometrica - a moss that grows in profusion on moist, shady, and damp bare soil, especially on sites of old fires, and in plant pots in glasshouses and shadehouses. Found throughout Aotearoa/New Zealand.


whaikōrero Play

1. (verb) (-tia) to make a formal speech.

Mutu ana te tangi, kei runga ngā kaumātua, kei te whaikōrero ki te manuhiri (TP 4/1907:7). / As soon as the weeping ended the elders are up and making speeches to the guests.

See also whai kī, whaikupu, whaikī


2. (noun) oratory, oration, formal speech-making, address, speech - formal speeches usually made by men during a pohiri and other gatherings. Formal eloquent language using imagery, metaphor, whakataukī, pepeha, kupu whakaari, relevant whakapapa and references to tribal history is admired. The basic format for whaikōrero is: tauparapara (a type of karakia); mihi ki te whare tupuna (acknowledgement of the ancestral house); mihi ki a Papatūānuku (acknowledgement of Mother Earth); mihi ki te hunga mate (acknowledgement of the dead); mihi ki te hunga ora (acknowledgement of the living); te take o te hui (purpose of the meeting). Near the end of the speech a traditional waiata is usually sung.

Nā Rēweti Kōhere te whaikōrero mō tēnei take, ā ko tēnei hoki te tino take i kōrerotia i tēnei hui (TP 3/1904:10). / Rēweti Kōhere spoke about this matter and this was the main topic discussed at this meeting.
(Te Kōhure Textbook (Ed. 2): 243-247;)


3. (noun) oral evidence.

I tino kaha te tahuri o ngā Kaiwhakawā ki te whiriwhiri i ngā whaikōrero i tukuna ai ki te Kōti i ngā whakawā e rua (RT 2013:103). / The Judges set about vigorously discussing the oral evidence submitted to the Court in the two cases.


ahikā Play

1. (noun) burning fires of occupation, continuous occupation - title to land through occupation by a group, generally over a long period of time. The group is able, through the use of whakapapa, to trace back to primary ancestors who lived on the land. They held influence over the land through their military strength and defended successfully against challenges, thereby keeping their fires burning.

Hokihoki tonu ai ia ki tana ūkaipō kia mau tonu ai tana ahikā. / He kept returning to his birthplace so that his rights to the land were maintained.


atua Play

1. (noun) ancestor with continuing influence, god, demon, supernatural being, deity, ghost, object of superstitious regard, strange being - although often translated as 'god' and now also used for the Christian God, this is a misconception of the real meaning. Many Māori trace their ancestry from atua in their whakapapa and they are regarded as ancestors with influence over particular domains. These atua also were a way of rationalising and perceiving the world. Normally invisible, atua may have visible representations.

Ko te atua o te pakanga, ko Tū-mata-uenga. He maha ōna ingoa: Tū-kā-riri, Tū-te-ngaehe, Tū-mata-uenga, Tū-tawake, Tū-whakamoana-ariki, Tū-kai-taua, Tū-kai-tangata (M 2006:122). / The atua of war, Tū-mata-uenga. He has several names: Tū-kā-riri (Tū-the angry-one), Tū-te-ngaehe (Tū-who-tears-apart), Tū-mata-uenga (Tū-who-incites), Tū-tawake (Tū-who-hastens), Tū-whakamoana-ariki (Tū-who-enriches-the-sea), Tū-kai-taua (Tū-who-destroys-war-parties), Tū-kai-tangata (Tū-who-destroys-mankind) (M 2006:123).


2. (noun) God.

E tino maumahara ana au ki taua pō e inoi ana tō mātau koroua ki Te Atua kia tohungia mātau (HP 1991:14). / I well remember that night when our grandfather was praying to God that we be spared.


tūrangawaewae Play

1. (noun) domicile, standing, place where one has the right to stand - place where one has rights of residence and belonging through kinship and whakapapa.

Ki a rāua, ko Waahi kē te tūrangawaewae tika mōna (TTR 1998:87). / They considered Waahi to be the appropriate domicile for him.
(Te Kōhure Textbook (Ed. 2): 243;)


2. (noun) footstool - a Māori Bible use where it is written as two words.

Ko te rangi tōku torona, ko te whenua tōku tūranga waewae (PT Nga Mahi a nga Apotoro 7:49). / Heaven is my throne, and earth is my footstool.
Ko Arekahānara tōku hāona kaha; Ko Kemureti tōku oko horoi; Ko Ngāruawāhia tōku tūrangawaewae (BFM 2013:456). / Alexandra will ever be my symbol of strength of character; Cambridge a symbol of my wash bowl of sorrow; And Ngāruawāhia my footstool (BFM 2013:456). (A saying by King Tāwhiao and translated by Pei Te Hurinui Jones.)


muru Play

1. (verb) (-a) to wipe, wipe on, wipe off, rub, rub off, smear, paint, pluck (feathers, etc.).

Ko te waka rā i murua ki te peita mangu (TW 19/10/1878:9/521). / That canoe was painted with black paint.


2. (verb) (-a) to plunder, confiscate, take ritual compensation - an effective form of social control, restorative justice and redistribution of wealth among relatives. The process involved taking all the offending party's goods. The party that had the muru performed on them did not respond by seeking utu. The reasons for a muru included threats to the institution of marriage, accidents that threatened life (e.g. parents' negligence), trampling on tapu, and defeat in war. It could be instituted for intentional or unintentional offences. It only occurred among groups of people who were linked by whakapapa or marriage and linked neighbouring villages in a collective response in the delivery of punishment. The protocols and practices involved would be determined by various factors, including the mana of the victim or offender, the degree of the offence and the intent of the offending party. Before a muru was engaged, the matter of what would be taken would be discussed in detail, as would the size of the taua to perform the muru. Physical violence could occur but generally ended when blood was drawn. A muru sought to redress a transgression with the outcome of returning the affected party back to their original position in society.

Me he rangatira te tangata nōna te pane i morimoria nei, kātahi ka rangona tēnei kupu morimori e whakahuatia ana, mō te morimoringa hoki o te pane tapu o te rangatira nei. Ka tauatia hoki, ka murua ngā taonga, whenua, aha atu rānei, a te tangata nāna i morimori (JPS 1894:28). / If it was a chief whose head was touched, then this word 'morimori' would be used for the action of touching the sacred head of the chief. The person who touched it would be the subject of a hostile party and his goods, land or other property would be plundered.
I tētahi wāhi o Haina e panapana ana te iwi i ngā minita karakia, muru rawa ngā taonga o ngā whare (KO 15/1/1885:2). / In one part of China the people have driven out the church ministers and plundered the possessions of the houses.


3. (verb) (-a) to wipe out, forgive, absolve, excuse, pardon, cancel - a modern connotation.

Kei te rapu anō hoki rānei koe kia mātau mehemea kua oti ō hara te muru mō tō tohe tonu ki te inoi, kua hopu rānei koe, he tika kua murua ō hara nō te mea kua pēnā tā te Atua kupu? (THM 1/10/1889:5). / Are you seeking to know if your sins are forgiven because you keep on asking, or is it right that your sins have been forgiven because that is what the word of God says?


4. (verb) (-a) to pluck off (leaves, feathers, etc.).

Ka murua ngā rimurimu, me ngā kohukohu i tōna tinana, ka ora ia i reira (NM 1928:24). / The seaweed and moss were removed from his body and then he revived.


5. (modifier) plundering, looting - especially in seeking ritual compensation.

I a Mita e ngaro ana, ka māuiuitia tana mokopuna, ka mate ki Poihākena. Te hokinga mai, ka tauatia a Mita ki te taua muru i runga i te whakapae nā āna mahi i mate ai tana mokopuna (TTR 1994:126). / While Mita was away his grandson became ill and died in Sydney. On returning here Mita was the subject of a muru party, on the accusation that he had caused his grandchild's death.


6. (modifier) confiscated, plundered.

Kore rawa a Taurua i whakaae kia utua mai ia mō ngā whenua muru (TTR 1990:166). / Taurua never agreed to take any payment for the confiscated land.


7. (noun) confiscation.

I tupea e ia he pōrangi mau pū, i whakaanga atu ia ki ngā rōpū kaipetipeti, me te muru hoki i ngā waipiro takahi i te ture (TTR 1998:9). / He disarmed a deranged gunman, confronted groups of gamblers and confiscated moonshine liquor.


karapitipiti

1. (noun) laid one beside the other - including for whakapapa.


2. (noun) grandstand.


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