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Phrases

Proverbs

Loan words

Historical loan words

rerenga kupu

1. (noun) phrase.

He maha ngā rerenga kupu i roto i ngā waiata mō te takitaki mate; he hura i te paepae umu; he ranga i te mate, etc. (M 2006:36). / There are many phrases in the songs for revenge for death; uncovering the heaped earth ovens; avenge the death in full, etc.

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Synonyms: rerenga kōrero

kīanga

1. (noun) act of speaking, saying, formulaic saying, expression.

Ko te kīanga a Tukumana ki a Barlow kua meatia e ngā uri o Haunui Tukumana hei whakataukī mā rātou ko tēnei: ko ahau tēnā hei hoa mō te whenua i ngā rā katoa. / A phrase used by Tukumana to Barlow has been made into a proverb by the descendants of Haunui Tukumana: 'I shall be with the land always.'

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Synonyms: pepeha, kupu, whakapepeha, kīnga, tūātau, , rerenga kōrero


2. (noun) phrase - a small group of words that forms a unit, either on its own or within a sentence.

Ko te 'koia rā', te 'tā i te kawa' me 'te tangata e whakapaetia ana', he tauira o te kīanga i te reo Māori (PK 2008:259). / 'Koia rā' (that was), 'tā i te kawa' (perform the kawa ceremony) and 'te tangata e whakapaetia ana' (the accused) are example of phrases in Māori.

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3. (noun) expression (maths).

Ko te kīanga he kohinga tau, taurangi rānei, e honoa ana ki te tohu paheko, pērā i te tāpiri, te tango, te whakarea, me te wehe (TRP 2010:150). / An expression is a collection of numbers or variables which are linked together with signs for operations, such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

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rerenga kōrero

1. (noun) sentence, phrase, saying.

Ka whakapono ētahi iwi Māori, ko te putanga o Puanga kē te tohu ki te tau hōu a te Māori, kāpā ko Matariki. Koirā te takenga o te rerenga kōrero ‘Puanga kai rau’, mō te nui o te kai i tēnei wā o te tau (Te Ara 2013). / Some Māori tribes believed that it was the rising of the star Rigel which heralded the Māori new year, not Matariki. Hence the saying: ‘Puanga of a hundred foods' for the abundance of food at this time of the year.

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Synonyms: rerenga kupu, pepeha, kupu, whakapepeha, kīnga, tūātau, kīanga,

peha

1. (noun) figure of speech, proverb, witticism, turn of phrase - a set form of words.

Nā Māui i hoatu te peha (W 1971:274). / It was Māui who gave the proverb.

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Synonyms: pepeha, whakatauākī, whakataukī


2. (verb) to boast, brag.

Kāore au i te peha (TP 6/1913:2). / I'm not bragging.

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rerenga puoro

1. (noun) musical phrase.

Ko te rerenga puoro te huihinga o ētahi oro, o ētahi tapa rānei hei wāhanga motuhake o roto i tētahi titonga puoro (RTP 2015:96). / A musical phrase is the grouping together of notes or bars which form a distinct part within a musical composition. (RTP 2015:96).

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kīanga teremau

1. (noun) catchphrase, slogan.

nahe

1. (particle) only, none but, nothing but, alone, without exception, there is nothing, no one else, these people or things and no others - used to show that the phrase it follows names all the entities referred to. In the phrase, it comes after manner, directional and locative particles, if any are present. Shortened form of anahe.

I pōtitia nei māua e ō māua hapū me ngā kōrero i kōrerotia e au i taua hui nei, nō roto nahe i ngā pire, nō roto nahe hoki i ngā pukapuka i kapea iho e au i ngā whaikorero o tō tātou Pāremata (HTK 23/9/1893:5). / We were elected by our subtribes and the statements made by me at that meeting were only those in the bills, and only in the reports I copied in the speeches of our parliament.

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See also anahe

Synonyms: anake, anahe, kau, noa, noa iho, tonu

atu

1. (particle) away - indicates direction away from speaker, or from the person (or thing) who is the focus of the utterance. Also indicates onwards following verbs of motion. Like the other three directional particles, mai, iho and ake, it always follows manner particles (i.e. kau, , noa, rawa and tonu) if they are present in the phrase.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 27, 120;)

Tīkina atu he tūru mōku! / Fetch me a chair, please!
Titiro tonu atu ana ōna kaumātua ki te whakamahi i ōna kaha ki te kōrero, me tōna pai ki te whakatau i ngā whakahaere i waenga i a ia me ngā āpiha Pākehā a te kāwanatanga. (TTR 1994:73). / His elders were continually observing his ability in speaking and dealing successfully with the Pākehā officials of the government.

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2. (particle) away, in a direction away - used with verbs which designate perception or attitude.

Kātahi au ka titiro i taku ringaringa, ka kite au e heke ana te toto. Ngoikore tonu atu au. / Then I looked at my hand and saw that it was bleeding. I became quite faint.

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3. (particle) other, others, next but one, before last, beyond that - when used following tērā and ērā in time expressions. When speaking of future events, atu  is used to indicate a time further into the future than that just referred to or about to be referred to.

Ā tērā atu wiki haere ai mātou ki Heretaunga. / The week after next we travel to Hastings.
Kei Tāmaki-makau-rau rāua i te rā nei. Hei tētahi rangi atu, ka tae ki Te Kauwhata. E rua rangi atu, kei Rotorua. / They are in Auckland today. The next day they arrive in Te Kauwhata. They're in Rotorua in two days time.

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Synonyms: , anō, ērā atu, kē atu, ētahi, ngētehi, ētehi


4. (particle) Used when comparing things. This includes iti, although it may often be followed by iho.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 101;)

He roa atu te whiore o te kau i tō te poaka. / A cow's tail is longer than that of a pig.
He iti atu te kapa kotahi ki te pereiti mā ngā minita, i te rau pauna a te tangata hei ako i tana tamaiti i ngā kāreti nunui (TKO 30/4/1920:9). / One penny in the plate for the ministers is smaller than a person's hundred pounds to teach his child in the large colleges.

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5. (particle) Used with a verb repeated with mai to indicate reciprocal action.

atu ana, tū mai ana rāua i tētahi taha o te awakeri. / They stood facing each other beside the ditch.

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6. (particle) further - used to emphasise distance.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 45;)

Kei tua atu ia i a Hine. / She is beyond Hine.
Te āhua nei kei waho iti atu o Kaiwaka tō rātou tawhiti ki waho (JPS 1957:230). / It would seem that their position was a little further out from Kaiwaka.

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7. (particle) other, another, some other, someone else - especially in the phrase tētahi atu.

Homai tētahi atu pune! / Pass me another spoon, please.
Tokowhā ngā kaiako, ā, i tēnei tau kua whiwhi te kura i tētahi atu. / There were four teachers and this year the school has another one.

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8. (particle) including - when referring to different kinds of people or things using nouns followed by atu but without a determiner.

(Te Māhuri Textbook (Ed. 2): 97;)

I hīkoi atu te tira ki Maungapōhatu, koroua atu, kuia atu, pakeke atu, tamariki atu. / The travelling party walked to Maungapōhatu, including elderly men, elderly women, adults and children.

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9. (particle) Used in time expressions, seemingly for emphasis.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 121;)

Nō mua atu tēnei aituā i te Pakanga Tuatahi o te Ao. / This disaster was before the First World War.

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10. (particle) apart from, other than, aside from, other, others - followed by i. Also used to indicate things that are additional to those already mentioned.

Atu i a koe, kārekau aku hoa. / Apart from you, I have no friends.
E whā i mate, e waru atu i taotū. / Four died and eight were wounded.

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ehara ... i te

1. (negative) is not, are not - used to negate sentences that begin with he followed by a noun to assert that the subject belongs to a class of things.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 109-110; Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 43-44;)

Ehara tēnei i te mahi uaua. / This is not a difficult task.

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2. (negative) is not, are not - affirmative sentences with a noun phrase beginning with ko are negated by ehara.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 43-44;)

Ehara tērā i te Pirimia. / That's not the Prime Minister.

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hoki

1. (particle) also, and, too, as well - often preceded by anō when used this way. In the phrase it comes after manner, directional and locative particles, if they are present.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 44-45, 129;)

Ka haere atu anō hoki ahau. / I'll be going too.

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2. (particle) for, because, on account of - will often express the connection of that phrase or sentence to the previous one, as its cause, i.e. to indicate the reason for something.

Ka noho ia ki raro, ka pōuri hoki ia ki a ia e kataina ana e ōna hoa. / He sat down because he was upset that he was being laughed at by his companions.

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Synonyms: , , nō te


3. (particle) Word giving emphasis.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 58; Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 22;)

Tō tere hoki! / How quick you were!
Nō hea hoki tēnā whakaaro? / Where the heck did you get that idea from?

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See also tō ... hoki

hōnia

1. (particle) very - an intensive used only with māngere, i.e. in the phrase māngere hōnia (very lazy).

He māngere hōnia ia ki te hī tuna. / He is very lazy when it comes to eeling.

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i

1. (particle) Used before verbs and statives to indicate past time.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 30-32, 82-85, 101-102; Te Kākano Study Guide (Ed. 1): 41-42;)

I ngongoro tō ihu inapō. / You snored last night.

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2. (particle) Combines with to form a past tense emphasising who or what did the action.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 30-32; Te Kākano Study Guide (Ed. 1): 41-42;)

Tio ngā tōtiti i tunu. / It was Joe who cooked the sausages.

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3. (particle) at, in, on, along, by way of - used before location words to indicate past location.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 29;)

I Ōtepoti rāua inanahi. / They were in Dunedin yesterday.

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Synonyms: runga, , ā, hei, kei,


4. (particle) has, had - used to state who or what had something.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 83;)

I a Poia taku waea pūkoro. / Poia had my cellphone.

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5. (particle) from - used with verbs of motion to indicate movement away from the place following.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 101; Te Kākano Study Guide (Ed. 1): 25, 26; Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 63-64;)

I piki atu rātou i te pūtake o te maunga ki te tihi. / They climbed from the base of the mountain to the summit.

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6. (particle) Used with verbs that take a direct object or experience verbs not indicating motion to mark the object or goal of the action.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 41-42, 84;)

Kua kite rātou i Te Maioro Nui Whakaharahara o Haina. / They have seen the Great Wall of China.

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7. (particle) Connects a location word with its related noun or noun phrase.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 15-16;)

Kei runga te kī i te tūru. / The key is on the chair.

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8. (particle) by, with - used to mark the agent of stative verbs.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 57, 99-100; Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 125;)

Kua riro te paoro i a ia. / She's taken the ball.

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9. (particle) while, during.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 101-102;)

I a ia e moe ana, ka hoki tana whaiāipo ki tōna kāinga. / While she was asleep, her boyfriend returned to his home.

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10. (particle) than, in comparison with - used when comparing things.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 101;)

He reka atu tēnei i tēnā. / This is sweeter than that.

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11. (particle) because, through, by reason of.

I tōna haurangi, ka hinga ia. / Because he was so drunk he fell over.

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12. (particle) Used in clauses expressing the reason for an action and in 'why' questions.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 23-24; Te Māhuri Textbook (Ed. 2): 43-44;)

He pukuriri nōku i kōrero pēnei ai. / It was because I was angry that I spoke like that.

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13. (particle) per, each, every.

E rua ngā rā whakatā i te wiki. / There are two rest days per week.

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14. (particle) in case ... may, were fortunate, to see whether, if it were not for - used between me and kore to express present or past hypothetical conditions.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 126-127;)

Me i kore koe, kua hinga tō tātou tīma. / If it weren't for you our team would have been defeated.

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ia

1. (particle) each, every - usually the phrase with ia is repeated together with the preposition if one is needed.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 90-91;)

Haere ai rāua ki te whare pukapuka ia rā, ia rā. / They go to the library every day.

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iho

1. (particle) down, downwards, from above, in a downwards direction - indicates direction downwards towards the speaker, away from the speaker, away from a group, or from someone other than the speaker. Like the other three directional particles, mai, atu and ake, it always follows manner particles (i.e. kau, , noa, rawa and tonu) if they are present in the phrase.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 127, 120;)

Heke iho! / Get down!
Nā ka tū iho a Karihi, ka tangi rāua mō te oraititanga o tōna teina (NM 1928:41). / Karihi stood down there and they both wept for the narrow escape of his (Tāwhaki's) younger brother.

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2. (particle) after that, following that - used in time expressions, seemingly for emphasis. It often occurs with muri to indicate time after that just mentioned, in the past or future. In these time phrases rawa may be included to indicate a fairly long time after that mentioned, or tonu and tata may be included to indicate a time shortly after that just mentioned.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 121;)

I muri iho i ēnei mea kua kōrerotia ake nei, ka hoki a Mānia ki Hokianga. / After these events spoken about above, Mānia returned to Hokianga.
I muri tata tonu iho i te pōhiri, ka kai rātou. / Immediately after the welcome ceremony they ate.
mua iho anō te mana o te reo o te wahine (Te Ara 2017). / The mana of a woman’s voice is ancient.
Nā, tēnei te tikanga mō ngā kaipuke pākaru. Ka paea tētahi ki uta ka eke, ko te mea mātāmua e whakaaroa e koutou ko ngā tāngata kia whakaorangia; muri iho ngā taonga; muri rawa iho ngā papa, ngā haika, ngā hēra, ngā aha o te kaipuke (TK 1/12/1843:47). / Now, this is the process for wrecked ships. When one runs aground, board it and the first thing that you should consider is the people to be saved; after that it's the cargo; and eventually after that it's the timber, anchors, sails and other parts of the ship.

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3. (particle) below, under - emphasises distance with location words, especially raro.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 45;)

Kei raro iho te kakī i te rae. / The neck is below the forehead.

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See also raro iho


4. (particle) less, worse, shorter, lower - used with some words (e.g. kinoiti, poto and raro) when comparing things, especially when it is a lesser quality or expresses smallness, scarceness, badness, etc. This also applies to verbs created by prefixing whaka- to adjectives such as these.

He iti iho te utu mō te tamariki i te pakeke. / The price for children is less than adults.
Kua kino iho ngā marangai, ngā tauraki, ngā waipuke i ō ngā wā o mua (HJ 2015:184). / Storms, droughts and floods are worse than in former times.
Kua whakaitia iho e au te utu o aku pūtu me aku hū (TWMNT 21/5/1879:420). / The price of my boots and shoes has been reduced.

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Synonyms: iti iho, whakaheke, whakamahuru, whakararo


5. (particle) straight away - used to show an immediate sequence of events.

I taku taenga ki runga, ka kite iho au kua motu te tupehau o taku waewae. / When I reached the top I saw straight away that the calf of my leg was cut.

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6. (particle) Used to indicated a time approaching in the future, especially following heke.

Me tāpiri atu he kōrero whakamārama kia kore ai e pōrahurahu ā tātou tamariki, ā tātou mokopuna ā ngā tau e heke iho nei (RK 1994:113). / Some explanations should be added so that our children and grandchildren in the coming years are not confounded.

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7. (particle) Used to reinforce words with negative connotations, such as darkness, sadness, troubles and death. Actions that involve considerable time and effort, or are weightier or have a solemn connotation may also use iho.

Kātahi rātau ka pakanga, ka hinga te hoariri i a rātau, ā, mate iho te kaiwhakahaere o te hoariri (TPH 15/1/1900:6). / Then they fought, they defeated the enemy and the enemy's leader died.
Ka puta ake he paoa i te poka, ānō he paoa nō tētahi kāpura nui; ā pōuri iho te rā me te rangi i te paoa o te poka (PT Whakakitenga 9:2). / There arose a smoke out of the pit, as the smoke of a great furnace; and the sun and the air were darkened by reason of the smoke of the pit.
Koutou ngā tāngata kai paipa, me whakaaro iho ki ngā mea kino o taua mahi. / You people who smoke should consider the detrimental things about that activity.

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8. (particle) only, just, merely, quite - when immediately following noa.

Ka rūrū noa iho te poaka i tōna pane. / The pig just shook its head.

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See also noa iho

kai a te ahi

1. (interjection) bugger - a strong curse indicating anger or hatred towards someone or something equivalent to strong expletives in English. The strength of emotions usually associated with the use of the Māori words is not conveyed in a literal translation in English. However, the strength of the phrase depends on the ferocity of the delivery by the speaker.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 106; Te Pihinga Audio Tapes/CDs (Ed. 2): exercise 40;)

Pōkokohua kai a te ahi! E kī, e kī ka haere koe ki reira raweke ai i te tāne a tētahi atu. Ka whakamā te uwha kurī i a koe! (HKK 1999:91). / What a bitch! Well, well, you went there to have it off with someone else's husband. A female dog would be ashamed of you!

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2. (noun) so-and-so, bugger.

Rangi: He tino kino ngā kōrero a Hone mōu. Pare: Hei aha māku ngā kōrero a tēnā kai a te ahi? (HKK 1999:91). / Rangi: It's terrible what Hone says about you. Pare: What do I care what that bugger says?

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kai a te kurī

1. (interjection) bugger - a strong curse indicating anger or hatred towards someone or something equivalent to strong expletives in English. The strength of emotions usually associated with the use of the Māori words is not conveyed with a literal translation in the English. However, the strength of the phrase depends on the ferocity of the delivery by the speaker.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 106; Te Pihinga Audio Tapes/CDs (Ed. 2): exercise 40;)

Pōkokohua kai a te kurī! Ka kīia atu me mutu te taraiwa haurangi, auare ake. Nā kua mate i a koe taku mokopuna. Kia mate atu ko koe! (HKK 1999:92). / You bastard! You were told that you must stop driving drunk, but you didn't listen. Now you've killed my grandchild. You should have died!

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2. (modifier) damn, damnable, vile.

Kua mōhiotia nuitia te kino, kino, kino rawa o te tupeka, koia i whakaarahia ai e te Runanga Ruānuku o te Kuīni ngā ture hei patu i tērā taru kai a te kuri (KO 15/7/1884:7). / It is generally known how extremely bad tobacco is and that's why the laws have been raised by the Privy Council to destroy that damn weed.

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3. (noun) so-and-so.

Ka kore anō e aro i tērā kai a te kurī, nō reira kaua rawa atu māna te kī mai me aha. / That 'so and so' doesn't have a clue, so no way should he be telling us what to do.
Pare: E kī ana a Te Rerenga he koretake rawa atu tō tātou kōhanga reo. Rangi: Ka kore anō tēnā kai a te kurī e mōhio (HKK 1999:92). / Pare: Te Rerenga says that our Kōhanga Reo is absolutely useless. Rangi: That bastard wouldn't know.

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kai hamuti

1. (interjection) a curse indicating annoyance, dislike or mild anger towards someone. The strength of the phrase depends on the ferocity of the delivery by the speaker.

Kei noho koutou ka whakawhiwhi tūranga ki tēnā kai hamuti (HKK 1999:92). / Don't you dare give that bugger a position.

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kaua

1. (negative) do not, don't, had better not - for negative commands. Other dialectal forms include aua, kauaka and kauraka.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 67; Te Pihinga Study Guide (Ed. 1): 40-41;)

Kaua koe e haere! / Don't you go!

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See also kauaka, kauraka, aua, auaka


2. (negative) should not - used in negation following kia.

Me whakatū he pōti mō te waipiro, kia whakaaetia, kia kaua e whakaaetia ki Te Rohe Pōtae. / A referendum should be held as to whether or not alcohol should be allowed into the King Country.

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3. (negative) must not - sometimes used in negation following me.

Me kaua a Kura-mōnehu e tere te whakaae atu ina tono a Rōra kia moe rāua. / Kura-mōnehu shouldn't be in a hurry to agree when Rōra requests that they wed.

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Synonyms: auaka, auraka


4. (negative) not - used when negating a single phrase, not the whole sentence.

Nō te Rātapu ia i haere ai, kaua i te Rāhoroi. / She went on Sunday, not Saturday.
Ka tū tēnei ki runga i te marae, kaua ki roto i te wharekai (Kāretu 2015). / This was held on the marae, not in the dining hall.

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Synonyms: karekau, kārekau, kāhore, kore, hore, horekau, kāore, kāre, , hore kau

mai

1. (particle) this way - indicates direction towards the speaker, or to the person (or thing) who is central to the utterance. Follows ordinary verbs, statives and location words. Like the other three directional particles, atu, iho and ake, it always follows manner particles (i.e. kau, kē, noa, rawa and tonu) if they are present in the phrase.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 27, 120; Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 63-64;)

Kua hoki mai ngā kuaka. / The godwits have returned.
Ka whakanohoia te mōkai kākā ki te take o te taki, e tūtata tonu mai ana ki te whare o te tangata, ko tētehi pito o te turuturu e uru tonu mai ana ki roto i te whare (JPS 1895:136). / The decoy kākā is deposited at the foot of the taki (kākā snare), quite close to the man's hut, one end of the turuturu (support pole) entering right into the hut.

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2. (particle) from, since - indicating an extension in time or space. It marks the point from which the time or place is measured.

(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 64;)

Mai i Te Pakanga Tuarua o Te Ao ki nāianei. / Since the Second World War until now.
E mōhio ana te Kōti Whenua Māori nō tōna whānau ngā pānga nui ki ngā whenua mai i Maketū ki Tauranga, ā, mai i Ōkawa ki Te Rotoiti (TTR 1994:143). / The Māori Land Court knew that her extended family owned the lands from Maketū to Tauranga and from Ōkawa to Rotoiti.

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3. (particle) Used with verbs to indicate a perception or attitude towards the speaker.

Ka pātai atu au mehemea ka taea e rātou te tunu mai i aku kai. / I asked if they could cook my food.

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4. (particle) Used in narrative to indicate direction towards the main character.

I moe iho a Kupe i te pō ka kite i te atua, i a Io, ka tohutohungia mai ki a ia me whiti mai ia i Te Moana-nui-a-Kiwa ki te whenua tērā e whakakitea ki a ia. / Kupe slept that night and saw the atua, Io, who instructed him to cross the Pacific Ocean to the land that had been revealed to him.

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5. (particle) including, both - when referring to different kinds of people or things using nouns followed by mai but without a determiner.

(Te Māhuri Textbook (Ed. 2): 97;)

Kī tonu te wharepuni i te tāngata, Pākehā mai, Māori mai. / The sleeping house was full of people, both Pākehā and Māori.

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6. (particle) Used in time expressions, seemingly for emphasis. This usage includes future time expressions.

(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 121;)

I rongo au i muri mai i haere ia ki Tīpene kura ai. / I heard that after that he went to school at St Stephen's.
Hei te Paraire e heke mai nei tīmata ai te wā whakanui i te koroneihana o Kīngi Tūheitia ki runga i te marae o Tūrangawaewae. / On this coming Friday the celebration of King Tūheitia's coronation begins on Tūrangawaewae marae.

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māhoi

1. (modifier) steady, fixed - especially in the phrase titiro māhoi.

Ko tāna hei whakautu i te titiro māhoi mai a tana hoa, ko te kī atu, ‘Ō hamuti.’ (HKK 1999:94). / His response to the staring of his friend was to say, 'Bugger you.'

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