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Loan words

Historical loan words

muru

1. (verb) (-a) to wipe, wipe on, wipe off, rub, rub off, smear, paint, pluck (feathers, etc.).

Ko te waka rā i murua ki te peita mangu (TW 19/10/1878:9/521). / That canoe was painted with black paint.

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2. (verb) (-a) to plunder, confiscate, take ritual compensation - an effective form of social control, restorative justice and redistribution of wealth among relatives. The process involved taking all the offending party's goods. The party that had the muru performed on them did not respond by seeking utu. The reasons for a muru included threats to the institution of marriage, accidents that threatened life (e.g. parents' negligence), trampling on tapu, and defeat in war. It could be instituted for intentional or unintentional offences. It only occurred among groups of people who were linked by whakapapa or marriage and linked neighbouring villages in a collective response in the delivery of punishment. The protocols and practices involved would be determined by various factors, including the mana of the victim or offender, the degree of the offence and the intent of the offending party. Before a muru was engaged, the matter of what would be taken would be discussed in detail, as would the size of the taua to perform the muru. Physical violence could occur but generally ended when blood was drawn. A muru sought to redress a transgression with the outcome of returning the affected party back to their original position in society.

Me he rangatira te tangata nōna te pane i morimoria nei, kātahi ka rangona tēnei kupu morimori e whakahuatia ana, mō te morimoringa hoki o te pane tapu o te rangatira nei. Ka tauatia hoki, ka murua ngā taonga, whenua, aha atu rānei, a te tangata nāna i morimori (JPS 1894:28). / If it was a chief whose head was touched, then this word 'morimori' would be used for the action of touching the sacred head of the chief. The person who touched it would be the subject of a hostile party and his goods, land or other property would be plundered.
I tētahi wāhi o Haina e panapana ana te iwi i ngā minita karakia, muru rawa ngā taonga o ngā whare (KO 15/1/1885:2). / In one part of China the people have driven out the church ministers and plundered the possessions of the houses.

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3. (verb) (-a) to wipe out, forgive, absolve, excuse, pardon, cancel - a modern connotation.

Kei te rapu anō hoki rānei koe kia mātau mehemea kua oti ō hara te muru mō tō tohe tonu ki te inoi, kua hopu rānei koe, he tika kua murua ō hara nō te mea kua pēnā tā te Atua kupu? (THM 1/10/1889:5). / Are you seeking to know if your sins are forgiven because you keep on asking, or is it right that your sins have been forgiven because that is what the word of God says?

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4. (verb) (-a) to pluck off (leaves, feathers, etc.).

Ka murua ngā rimurimu, me ngā kohukohu i tōna tinana, ka ora ia i reira (NM 1928:24). / The seaweed and moss were removed from his body and then he revived.

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5. (modifier) plundering, looting - especially in seeking ritual compensation.

I a Mita e ngaro ana, ka māuiuitia tana mokopuna, ka mate ki Poihākena. Te hokinga mai, ka tauatia a Mita ki te taua muru i runga i te whakapae nā āna mahi i mate ai tana mokopuna (TTR 1994:126). / While Mita was away his grandson became ill and died in Sydney. On returning here Mita was the subject of a muru party, on the accusation that he had caused his grandchild's death.

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6. (modifier) confiscated, plundered.

Kore rawa a Taurua i whakaae kia utua mai ia mō ngā whenua muru (TTR 1990:166). / Taurua never agreed to take any payment for the confiscated land.

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7. (noun) confiscation.

I tupea e ia he pōrangi mau pū, i whakaanga atu ia ki ngā rōpū kaipetipeti, me te muru hoki i ngā waipiro takahi i te ture (TTR 1998:9). / He disarmed a deranged gunman, confronted groups of gamblers and confiscated moonshine liquor.

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muru raupatu

1. (verb) (-tia) to confiscate.

Nō muri i te riri ka muru raupatutia ngā whenua o Waikato (TTR 1990:71). / After the war the lands of Waikato were confiscated.

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