1. (particle) Used before people's names of one long vowel or two short vowels when addressing them, with terms of address, and with nouns used as terms of address. Also used before koe, kōrua and koutou when they are used as terms of address.
E Rangi, kei hea ō mōhiti? / Rangi, where are your glasses.
E hine, tīkina atu he kapu! / Girl, fetch a cup, please!
E te rangatira, he mihi nui ki a koe. / Oh chief, a great greeting to you.
E koutou, e ngā kapa toa o te motu, i hau ai ngā rongo o Te Taura Whiri i a koutou, tēnā rā koutou katoa i roto i ngā mihi mutunga kore (HM 3/1995:1). / You, the champion performing arts teams of the country, you have enhanced the reputation of the Māori Language Commission, so our eternal thanks to you all.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 2;)
2. (particle) Used before hia? and when stating numbers of things where the number begins with a word of one vowel or two short vowels.
E hia āna tāmure? E rua tekau mā tahi. / How many snapper does she have? Twenty-one.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 5, 16;)
3. (particle) Used in commands before verbs of one long vowel or two short vowels.
E inu, e hoa! / Drink up, mate!
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 26-27, 67, 111;)
4. (particle) Used for negative commands after kaua.
Kaua e whakarongo ki a ia. / Don't listen to her.
5. (particle) will - combines with mā to indicate future time when emphasising who will do something. The e will precede the verb.
Mā Pita tō tātou motokā e horoi. / Peter will clean our car.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 65; Te Kākano Study Guide (Ed. 1): 41-42;)
6. (particle) Used with verbs and ana to show action in progress.
Kei raro te koroua i te pōhutukawa e moe ana. / The old man is asleep under the pōhutukawa tree.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 12, 120;)
7. (particle) Used before the verb with the particles ai, nei, nā and rā to show progress in action or a temporary state.
Ko wai tērā e tū mai rā? / Who is that standing over there?
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 12, 120;)
8. (particle) will not - used after kāore before verbs in negative sentences when saying something will not be done.
Kāore ahau e wehi ahakoa ko wai (TAH 8/1954:48). / I'm not afraid of anyone.
(Te Kākano Textbook (Ed. 2): 75-76;)
See also kāore ... e
9. (particle) will not - used before kore and the verb in the future negative pattern.
E kore tēnei wahine rangatira e wareware tata i ngā iwi i manaakitia ki tōna marae whakapaipai (TAH 3/1953:6). / This noble woman will not be forgotten in a hurry by the tribes that were hosted on her beautiful marae.
(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 89-90;)
See also e kore ... e
10. (particle) if, when.
E whiti koe ki tāwāhi, me hoko mai he hūtu hou mōku. / When you go overseas, buy me a new suit, please.
E kite koe i te nohoanga i ngā ware haere hei hoa kai tahi mō rātau (TTT 1/9/1923:1). / If you see a place where commoners are sitting go and eat with them.
11. (particle) Used before the verb in 'if not' questions after ki te kore ....
Ki te kore e ua, ka haere tātou. / If it doesn't rain we'll go.
(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 67;)
12. (particle) Used before the verb in negative sentences using kua kore.
Paku noa iho te mataratanga atu o te waka i mua i a mātau, kua kore e kitea atu (HP 1991:182). / The distance from the vehicle in front of us was quite small, but it could no longer be seen.
(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 89-90; Te Pihinga Study Guide (Ed. 1): 55;)
See also kua kore
13. (particle) will - in classical Māori used by itself in front of a verb without nei, nā, rā, ana or ai as a future time indicator.
Tērā pea e tae mai ia. / Perhaps she will arrive.
14. (particle) Used before the verb in 'why not' questions after he aha ... i kore ai.
He aha koe i kore ai e pōti? / Why didn't you vote?
(Te Pihinga Textbook (Ed. 2): 23;)
15. (particle) so that ... will not/would not - used after kia kore.
I whara te upoko o Tūpaea, ā, whakahaua ana e Hikareia he taua pouturiao hei hari i tana irāmutu ki Tauranga, kia kore ai a Ngāi Te Rangi e mahue ngārahu kore (TTR 1990:373). / Tūpaea was wounded in the head, so Hikareia ordered a guard of warriors to take his nephew to Tauranga so that Ngāi Te Rangi would not be left leaderless.
(Te Māhuri Textbook (Ed. 2): 31-32;)
See also kia kore ai ... e ...